Credibility and Computers

Q1 Summary

Why is it important to evaluate credibility of a website?

The way of study has changed. Before, I mean 15-20 years ago and also depending on a country, students could only rely on the local libraries or lecturers to find the relevant information, people were sitting in the libraries reading books just to find the information they were after. This was the only two ways to gain the knowledge and have access to a credible source. Whereas now, all the information is pouring down on us, we have access to so many sources at our fingertip. It’s common, or even a must, to refer to and rely on an online resource to find relevant information. Everyone is pressed for time and it seems like we work fast and we need the information fast, we becoming a generation that is impatient. At the same time, we need to be able to identify which sources are credible, so that we can quickly identify it and use it appropriately. It’s crucial to evaluate credibility of a website in order to provide a relevant and a good quality of information (Why Is Credibility of Online Sources Important in Education?, 2016).

How credibility of web resource could affect you as a student?

Being a student we write our assignments about many different topics, aspects, which we are not familiar with in every day life. We are trying to prove the point that someone else have stated, therefore, it is important that we know how to evaluate credibility of a source not only to support our research but also to provide the credibility of our statements.

 Q2 What is the reason why Wikipedia is not accepted as a credible resource for academic assignment ?

Wikipedia it’s an online version of encyclopaedia and it’s a great source, which is the reason why it appears first on a list when we look for information. At the same time, it’s a source which contains a general overview about topic where people from around the world can post articles, change them and even change others work . On top of this even Wikipedia states on their website that the articles posted may not be credible because the articles are, most of the time, written by people who might not necessarily be a credible source and have a specific qualification in this field (The Top 10 Reasons Students Cannot Cite or Rely On Wikipedia, 2016), (About, 2016). Also, some things that are posted may seem to be biased containing one point of view.

People who are using Wikipedia as a primary source are not so keen on looking for a credible information it’s too much effort to really investigate the source, plus everyone was or is using it, which result, most of a time, in plagiarism. Having said that, there are some good things about Wikipedia on one hand at the end of its web page we can find the references that the author used and use it as our reference by further investigating the source and second it forces us to question the source of the information, which make us a better learners.

Q3 In dot points in your own words list anticipated issues that may affect the users perceived Web credibility in future.

It will be hard to indicate the credibility of a website in the future because of:

  • The resources and technics that are nowadays available to everyone, is so good quality that people can design their website in such a professional way that for every day user it will be impossible to identify if the source is credible.
  • Credible websites would want subscription, which would prevent people from using them, no one would like to pay money just for a peace of information, which will be used only once.
  • In the future, people not pay attention to the source credibility because of the fast passed life, they would want the information right away and not spend a lot of time searching for it.
  • Pop-up ads might raise in order to grab people attention, it would cause rivalry over the viewer, therefore loss in users.
  • More new websites will be created and taking over an older and more credible web sites because of their less frequent updates, it would create a frustration because research part will take a long time.
  • There would be a lot of similar websites, which would create confusion and people would need to really invest their time and effort to check if the website is really credible.
  • Magazines would advertise a lot of similar websites which would be confusing for user to decide which one to use.
  • Users would listen to the recommendations from family and friends instead of trying figure it out which website is a credible source.
  • All sources would recommend the same links, which would cause confusion in order to determine which one is credible and which one is not.
  • Everyone will have an website and perhaps will write about similar topics, which would create a problem for users to identify a credible source.


A1 Examples

Website for each type of credibility (i.e. presumed, reputed, surface, and earned)



I chose UNICEF website as an example of presumed credibility based on the fact that its domain name ands with .org and it’s a non-profit organisation.



TripAdvisor website is an example of reputed website because it has won an award from PC Magazine and its also linked to other sites.



Westpac website is an example of surface website credibility because it’s professionally designed its colour a layout was really well planed.



eBay website it’s an example of earned website credibility because its recognises that I have been using the site and recommending the items I’m interested in. Also, its easy to read, their ads matching the website and a site quickly response to customers.



Why Is Credibility of Online Sources Important in Education?. (2016). Everyday Life – Global Post. Retrieved from

Walsh, K. (2016). The Importance of Source Evaluation and Content Credibility Skills for Today’s Students — Emerging Education Technologies. Retrieved from

About. (2016). Wikipedia. Retrieved from

The Top 10 Reasons Students Cannot Cite or Rely On Wikipedia. (2016). Retrieved from








Performance Load

Q1 Summary

This week reading talks about performance load, which in authors philosophy is the grater the load performance the smallest chance of performing the task. Authors present two types of performance load: cognitive and kinematic.

Cognitive load, is required to accomplish a task by remembering a huge chunk of information, it’s our ability to solve a problem. For example, by adding a menus command the cognitive load reducing the amount of information that needs to be remembered, which allowed the product to be mass produced, because the system is easy to understand for everyone (Miller, 1955). Also, by eliminating unnecessary complexity of a system we can simplify users experience.

Kinematic load it’s a physical step, which is required to finish a task. In authors view a design should concentrate on providing information that need to be remembered and is relevant, at the same time minimising the users’ effort to operate the device, product. This also should include a users’ experience (Nielsen Norman Group). By using the same conventions, which users already know and applying them throughout the system it allows users, who are familiar with one system, to adapt quickly to the other, therefore, reducing the kinematic load to finish a task (Garrett, 2011). People would enjoy using the products if the system would be designed keeping them in mind.


Q2 Chunking

Imagine a web page containing a lot of text, would you start reading it or would you skipped it? This type of pages is not appealing whatsoever and especially when you have to memorise this information. That’s why chunking it’s a technic that help people remember a peace of information simply by dividing it into smaller groups “chunks”. Whatever it is for, study or memorising information for short period of time, chunking enhances memory to work effectively by breaking a long peace of information into columns, groups whatever is good for you. It is like adding colour to different parts of text creates visual separation of text, which is more pleasing but most importantly we engage more with the text.

The term chunk was introduced in 1955 by George A. Miller who was an American Psychologist, he proposed that humans mind can only process no more than seven bits of information (Miller, 1955). For example, a phone number containing 10 numbers in a row, 0734526788, is hard to remember but also read, as specially if you are in a hurry, but when we brake those numbers into groups of tree, 0 734 526 788, it’s clear to read and easy to remember.


Q3 Why do you think a study psychology is necessary in design?

Psychology in design, in my opinion, play important part, because learning about psychology of colour, for instance, its crucial if you are a designer. Getting to know how curtained colours effect peoples’ mood, emotional feeling, and taking it into consideration when brainstorming an ideas, can create a great product. But in general making a firm decision based on a facts and research can help us understand the field we are interested in. For example, as mentioned in previous post chunking was based on research that proofed that people can remember not more than fife things which was then used to improve the websites usability, which was used  (Miller, 1955). I’m not a person who’s really keen on Psychology in general, but at the same time it is useful to understand a dipper meaning of the design and what effect does it has on people. Understanding psychology, especially when links to the field we are interested in is crucial to really get the dipper meaning because it raises questions, witch we would not have asked or thought of otherwise.


A1 Examples



As my first example I have chosen a mobile phone as a great example of a design that reduce a kinematic load for users. Nowadays all mobile phones include apps which allow us to brows on internet, use social media, unswear emails, take photos and so on.



My second choice is iPad and one of the reasons why is that this little device is designed to reduce the cognitive and kinematic load. Having just one button which allow you go to the main screen where all of the apps are, which you use and often go back to by reducing the the process and steps you need to go through to find the page or information you need. It’s a replacement of an old TV which had to be operated manually also allowing to sent emails, read books, play games, take photos, videos instead of using ten different devices we can use just one, which gives a satisfaction to a customer and pleasure of using this device.



My third and final picture is automatic door where or kinematic load is basically non. The sensor on top of the door senses when someone comes along that’s when there are opening without any physical reaction from user.




Miller, A, G., (1955). “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information”. Harvard university. Psychological Review.

Garrett, J, J., (2011). “The Elements of User Experience: User-Centered Design for the Web and Beyond, Second Edition”. New Readers.

Authority, N. & Design, C. (2012). The 7 Principles | Centre for Excellence in Universal Design. Retrieved from

The Definition of User Experience (UX). (2016). Retrieved from

Chunking. (2016). The Interaction Design Foundation. Retrieved 6 May 2016, from

Philosophy of Design: An Introduction. (2015). KADK. Retrieved from


Q1 Summary

The authors in this week reading outline the principles where consistency of a system enables people to efficiently learn new things.

The authors demonstrate four ways of consistency. First one is aesthetic consistency, where the colour, brand and appearance play a big part, it allows users to determine and easy recognise the specific companies, products also emotional expectations.

Functional consistency, improves legibility and usability, people know the basic symbols, traffic light signage, it refers to meaning and action. People are used to the same symbols representing the same things, people are used to having order in their life that’s why functional consistency allow them to learn and focus on things that are more important. Therefore, consistency enhances users to use the skills in many other mediums improving the users’ productivity with making small errors along the way easy to predict and react upon them (Nielsen, 1989).

Then we have internal consistency, where elements in the system should be consistent. Both functional and aesthetic consistency play a big part. People trusting the system originality.

And finally external consistency, which is all elements in the environment from dashboard in a car to signage like arrows: left, right, pause, play, rewind they are universal designs, which allow people to be more comfortable in a new environment or when using a new device. Understanding users’ diversity is a key to include in design process. (Persson, 2014). One of examples is shown in Steve Krug book “Don’t make me think” where he explains how users browse the web page. By keeping the hierarchy consistent, users can easily identify where to find what they are after, which initially give users a better experience (Krug, 2000).

It is crucial to focus on an external and internal consistency to provide universal design allowing people from any country, with any disability to focus on their task. People expect curtain things to remain intact like function of a system, people need to know where to look and where they can find relevant for them information, otherwise, they will loose interest but what’s more this would led to frustration and bad feedback, which result in loos of users.

Q2 Examples


Street Lights

I chose this picture because it represents the functional consistency, which is well known around the world. And because of that people who travel to other countries know that yellow light go before red, which indicates that they need to slow down and stop, it is automatic. This functional consistency allows users to use their already existing knowledge about the system to easy react to its appearance, which not only help them travel but also concentrate on other aspects of their journey (Persson, 2014). Plus, it proves that functional consistent allow users be more confident in any surrounding and using any product as long as its functional consistent stay the same.


Mac logo

I chose logo of Apple because it’s a great example how aesthetic consistency can create a easy recognition of a brand and emotional expectations. When I think about Apple products and what I associate with it is: innovation, consistency, great products, high quality materials even if the price is high I know I will be satisfied. They deliver what they promise and using logo on every item keep reminding us its high quality products and a great customer service (Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003). Definitely by delivering a high quality aesthetic consistency, users will  associated their first impression with the rest of the products from the same brand.



Green & Red

Looking at this picture we know exactly what is this for and how to use it, green to answer and red to finish a conversation or to choose not to answer. It’s a universal design of external consistency, which is simple and well recognised for many years. People are used to the fact that when their mobile phone rings the buttons that will pop up will be red and green. Even if they have an old phone without touch screen their bottoms are exactly the same. By keeping external consistency the same when designing a new product we helping users be more confident then using a device.



Persson, H., et al. (2014). “Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: different concepts—one goal? On the concept of accessibility—historical, methodological and philosophical aspects.” Universal Access in the Information Society 14(4): 505-526.

 Nelsen Norman Group. (2013). “Consistency in the Cross-Channel User Experience” (UX). Retrieved from

Nielsen, J. (1989). “Coordinating user interfaces for consistency”. SIGCHI bulletin (0736-6906), 20 (3), p. 63. Retrieved from

Krug, S., (2000). “Don’t Make Me Think. A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability”. New Reader, California.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

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Aesthetics of design

Q1 Summary

According to this week reading, aesthetics of a product plays a big part on human appreciation. Aesthetics and usability have been extensively researched and confirmed.

The authors Lidwell, Holden and Butler of Aesthetic-Usability Effect article believes that items, which are aesthetically pleasing, are perceived as easy to use even if they do not. In fact, it is believed that well-designed objects transmit a positive attitude, which makes people overlook design deficiencies, also boost creative thinking by broadening the brain processing, which allows to accept the faults of an item and boost the learning process, whereas negative attitude create narrowing the brain processing creating anxious feeling, which tenses the muscles and stifles creativity (Norman, 2007). Taking look at studies and experiment that were investigating the relationship between aesthetics and usability of Masaaki Kurosu and Kaori Kashimura and Tractinsky it is proven that visual aesthetics of an ATM interface influence people to use it also creating easiness of its usability even if might be complex (Kurosu & Kashimura, 1995, Tractinsky, 2000).

Objects, which are aesthetically deigned make people feel good, which also leading to tolerate faults of an item that can come along the way and because of its aesthetics it makes it easier for people to find a solution. Its eye catching design direct the eye, showing a visual clue how to use the system (Norman, 1988, 2002).

The Lidwell, Holden and Butler explain that aesthetically looking design can also create a personal feeling. They explain that if the item is visually pleasing, we can develop emotional feeling such as giving names. We also take pride of our possessions, not only because they look niece, but also because they bring a meaning to our life (Norman, 2007).

Products, which are aesthetically designed appeal to customers. Things like customizing ring tones, attractive design can influence customer decision more than usability. But at the same time design is successful only when the item is adapted by people if they want to buy it, while less-aesthetic design might not be accepted by the customer and at the same time it is a failed design (Norman, 2013).

Q2 Examples


Mac Watch      Watch

Here we have two types of watches one is a new innovation of Apple, witch is aesthetically pleasing, you can customise it to your preference and on the other side a simple watch face, sad looking watch all you can do is to choose a strap. Having those two options I think the winner, in most cases, is Apple watch. The whole look of it shouts “I’m great, buy me”, not even knowing how to use it, we are attracted to its visual aspects and knowing that it contains so many different applications this item is a winner. As Kurosu & Kashimura and Tractinsky, proofed, people go for things that are aesthetically pleasing but at the same time unique and innovative, they are curious and want to learn new things.






Here we have two different laptops one is PC and the other MAC. Even though PC is easy to use, the system is well known we can customise its hard drive, change battery and so on, when we look at MAC it is no comparison. MACs aesthetics are simply beautiful the materials, keyboard, display, the weight its just so appealing that the problem of having completely different system to PC is not even in peoples’ mind. Aesthetics, not only in this case, take the front stage in our decision making. What is appealing to us works better and also improve our emotional feeling (Norman, 2002, 2007).


Caffeeteria                       Coffee machine


Two types of coffee machines, one is big shiny, with buttons to press, separate milk frother etc. and the other one, which is small and simple don’t do much. First picture show machine which is simple to use, make a fresh coffee taste, but its look is not as appealing, whereas, second machine shows a machine which is innovative full of options it looks as if taken from a café. My point is that even though the first coffee machine give the same coffee taste it’s more probable that people would go for the multifunctional one because of its visual aspects.


Tractinsky, N., Katz, A, S., Ikar, D. (2000). Oxford Journals, Interacting with Computers.     Retrieved from

Kurosu, M. & Kashimura, K. (1995). Apparent usability vs. inherent usability. Conference Companion On Human Factors In Computing Systems – CHI ’95. Retrieved from

Norman, D. A. (2002). Emotion and design: Attractive things work better. Interactions Magazine, ix (4), 36-42. Retrieved from

Asch, S. E. (1946). “Forming impressions of personality.” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41(3): 258-290.

Norman, D. (2013). Design of Everyday Things: Revised and Expanded Edition, Basic Books.

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