Q1 Summary

The authors in this week reading outline the principles where consistency of a system enables people to efficiently learn new things.

The authors demonstrate four ways of consistency. First one is aesthetic consistency, where the colour, brand and appearance play a big part, it allows users to determine and easy recognise the specific companies, products also emotional expectations.

Functional consistency, improves legibility and usability, people know the basic symbols, traffic light signage, it refers to meaning and action. People are used to the same symbols representing the same things, people are used to having order in their life that’s why functional consistency allow them to learn and focus on things that are more important. Therefore, consistency enhances users to use the skills in many other mediums improving the users’ productivity with making small errors along the way easy to predict and react upon them (Nielsen, 1989).

Then we have internal consistency, where elements in the system should be consistent. Both functional and aesthetic consistency play a big part. People trusting the system originality.

And finally external consistency, which is all elements in the environment from dashboard in a car to signage like arrows: left, right, pause, play, rewind they are universal designs, which allow people to be more comfortable in a new environment or when using a new device. Understanding users’ diversity is a key to include in design process. (Persson, 2014). One of examples is shown in Steve Krug book “Don’t make me think” where he explains how users browse the web page. By keeping the hierarchy consistent, users can easily identify where to find what they are after, which initially give users a better experience (Krug, 2000).

It is crucial to focus on an external and internal consistency to provide universal design allowing people from any country, with any disability to focus on their task. People expect curtain things to remain intact like function of a system, people need to know where to look and where they can find relevant for them information, otherwise, they will loose interest but what’s more this would led to frustration and bad feedback, which result in loos of users.

Q2 Examples


Street Lights

I chose this picture because it represents the functional consistency, which is well known around the world. And because of that people who travel to other countries know that yellow light go before red, which indicates that they need to slow down and stop, it is automatic. This functional consistency allows users to use their already existing knowledge about the system to easy react to its appearance, which not only help them travel but also concentrate on other aspects of their journey (Persson, 2014). Plus, it proves that functional consistent allow users be more confident in any surrounding and using any product as long as its functional consistent stay the same.


Mac logo

I chose logo of Apple because it’s a great example how aesthetic consistency can create a easy recognition of a brand and emotional expectations. When I think about Apple products and what I associate with it is: innovation, consistency, great products, high quality materials even if the price is high I know I will be satisfied. They deliver what they promise and using logo on every item keep reminding us its high quality products and a great customer service (Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003). Definitely by delivering a high quality aesthetic consistency, users will  associated their first impression with the rest of the products from the same brand.



Green & Red

Looking at this picture we know exactly what is this for and how to use it, green to answer and red to finish a conversation or to choose not to answer. It’s a universal design of external consistency, which is simple and well recognised for many years. People are used to the fact that when their mobile phone rings the buttons that will pop up will be red and green. Even if they have an old phone without touch screen their bottoms are exactly the same. By keeping external consistency the same when designing a new product we helping users be more confident then using a device.



Persson, H., et al. (2014). “Universal design, inclusive design, accessible design, design for all: different concepts—one goal? On the concept of accessibility—historical, methodological and philosophical aspects.” Universal Access in the Information Society 14(4): 505-526.

 Nelsen Norman Group. (2013). “Consistency in the Cross-Channel User Experience” (UX). Retrieved from

Nielsen, J. (1989). “Coordinating user interfaces for consistency”. SIGCHI bulletin (0736-6906), 20 (3), p. 63. Retrieved from

Krug, S., (2000). “Don’t Make Me Think. A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability”. New Reader, California.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

AMERICAN ENGLISH & BRITISH ENGLISH – Anh Văn Giao Tiếp Thầy Thảo. (2015). Anh Văn Giao Tiếp Thầy Thảo. Retrieved 8 May 2016, from

Regus Marketplace : Apple :: Save up to 10% on Apple products. (2016). Retrieved 8 May 2016, from

Can’t answer calls on your iPhone? Try this solution – Redsn0w Jailbreak 8.3 – 8.4 Evasi0n iOS Jailbreak 8.2. (2016). Retrieved 8 May 2016, from